Articles Tagged with: Andy Warhol

David Lachapelle

David Lachapelle was born in Connecticut in 1969, he attended the North Carolina School of Arts before heading to New York City, a move that would result in a chance encounter with legendary pop icon Andy Warhol and a job as a photographer at Interview magazine. This in turn provided the springboard and exposure that allowed David LaChapelle to become a household name through his dynamic and challenging photo features for leading publications, work that has seen him ranked among the top ten Most Important People in Photography in the world by American Photo magazine.

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The Fellini of photography” (New York Magazine), David LaChapelle holds a rightful place as one of the most high profile, spectacular and respected photographers of the day. Working mainly in the field of fashion and celebrity, countless VIPs have gone before his hallowed lens, including Britney Spears, Madonna, Naomi Campbell and Paris Hilton, while magazines Vogue Italia, Vanity Fair and The Face have used his fantasy imagery and viewer eye candy on their pages for the last decade.

In 2006, David LaChapelle decided to minimize his participation in commercial photography, and return to his roots by focusing on fine art photography. Since then, he has been the subject of exhibitions in both commercial galleries and leading public institutions around the world. He has had record breaking solo museum exhibitions at the Barbican Museum, London (2002), Palazzo Reale, Milan (2007), Museo del Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso, Mexico City (2009), the Musee de La Monnaie, Paris (2009), the Museum of Contemporary Art in Taipei, Taiwan and the Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Israel. In 2011, he has had a major exhibition of new work at The Lever House, New York and retrospectives at the Museo Arte Contemporáneo de Puerto Rico (through March 2012), the Hangaram Design Museum in Seoul (through February 2012) and Galerie Rudolfinum, Prague (through February 2012).

The galleries he has exhibited in include Tony Shafrazi and Paul Kasmin galleries in New York, Robilant + Voena in London, Alain Noirhomme Gallery in Brussels, Galerie Thomas, Munich and de Sarthe, Hong Kong. In 2012, David LaChapelle is breaking new ground in his own career by showing an exhibition titled Earth Laughs in Flowers at four different international galleries simultaneously: Reformierte Dorfkirche in St. Moritz, branches of Robilant + Voena in London and Milan, and Fred Torres Collaborations in New York.

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Keith Haring

Keith Haring - Retrospect
 
 

Keith Haring was born on May 4, 1958 in Reading, Pennsylvania, and was raised in nearby Kutztown, Pennsylvania. He developed a love for drawing at a very early age, learning basic cartooning skills from his father and from the popular culture around him, such as Dr. Seuss and Walt Disney.

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Upon graduation from high school in 1976, Keith Haring enrolled in the Ivy School of Professional Art in Pittsburgh, a commercial arts school. He soon realized that he had little interest in becoming a commercial graphic artist and, after two semesters, dropped out. While in Pittsburgh, Keith Haring continued to study and work on his own and in 1978 had a solo exhibition of his work at the Pittsburgh Arts and Crafts Center.

Later that same year, Keith Haring moved to New York City and enrolled in the School of Visual Arts (SVA). In New York, Keith Haring found a thriving alternative art community that was developing outside the gallery and museum system, in the downtown streets, the subways and spaces in clubs and former dance halls. Here he became friends with fellow artists Kenny Scharf and Jean-Michel Basquiat, as well as the musicians, performance artists and graffiti writers that comprised the burgeoning art community.

Keith Haring was swept up in the energy and spirit of this scene and began to organize and participate in exhibitions and performances at Club 57 and other alternative venues. In addition to being impressed by the innovation and energy of his contemporaries, Haring was also inspired by the work of Jean Dubuffet, Pierre Alechinsky, William Burroughs, Brion Gysin and Robert Henri’s manifesto The Art Spirit, which asserted the fundamental independence of the artist. With these influences Keith Haring was able to push his own youthful impulses toward a singular kind of graphic expression based on the primacy of the line. Also drawn to the public and participatory nature of Christo’s work, in particular Running Fence, and by Andy Warhol’s unique fusion of art and life, Haring was determined to devote his career to creating a truly public art.

As a student at SVA, Haring experimented with performance, video, installation and collage, while always maintaining a strong commitment to drawing. In 1980, Haring found a highly effective medium that allowed him to communicate with the wider audience he desired, when he noticed the unused advertising panels covered with matte black paper in a subway station. He began to create drawings in white chalk upon these blank paper panels throughout the subway system.

Between 1980 and 1985, Haring produced hundreds of these public drawings in rapid rhythmic lines, sometimes creating as many as forty “subway drawings” in one day. This seamless flow of images became familiar to New York commuters, who often would stop to engage the artist when they encountered him at work. The subway became, as Haring said, a “laboratory” for working out his ideas and experimenting with his simple lines.

Between 1980 and 1986, Haring achieved international recognition and participated in numerous group and solo exhibitions. His first solo exhibition in New York, held at the Tony Shafrazi Gallery in 1982, was immensely popular and received critical acclaim. During this period, he participated in highly renowned international survey exhibitions such as Documenta 7 in Kassel Germany, the São Paulo Biennial and the Whitney Biennial. Haring completed numerous public projects in the first half of the 80’s as well, ranging from an animation for the Spectracolor billboard in Times Square, designing sets and backdrops for theaters and clubs, to developing watch designs for Swatch and creating murals worldwide.

In April 1986, Haring opened the Pop Shop, a retail store in Soho selling T-shirts, toys, posters, buttons and magnets bearing his images. Haring considered the shop to be an extension of his work and painted the entire interior of the store in an abstract black on white mural, creating a striking and unique retail environment. The shop was intended to allow people greater access to his work, which was now readily available on products at a low cost. The shop received criticism from many in the art world, however Haring remained committed to his desire to make his artwork available to as wide an audience as possible, and received strong support for his project from friends, fans and mentors including Andy Warhol.

Throughout his career, Haring devoted much of his time to public works, which often carried social messages. He produced more than 50 public artworks between 1982 and 1989, in dozens of cities around the world, many of which were created for charities, hospitals, children’s day care centers and orphanages. The now famous Crack is Wack mural of 1986 has become a landmark along New York’s FDR Drive.

Other projects include; a mural created for the 100th anniversary of the Statue of Liberty in 1986, on which Haring worked with 900 children; a mural on the exterior of Necker Children’s Hospital in Paris, France in 1987; and a mural painted on the western side of the Berlin Wall three years before its fall. Haring also held drawing workshops for children in schools and museums in New York, Amsterdam, London, Tokyo and Bordeaux, and produced imagery for many literacy programs and other public service campaigns. Haring was diagnosed with AIDS in 1988. In 1989, he established the Keith Haring Foundation, its mandate being to provide funding and imagery to AIDS organizations and children’s programs, and to expand the audience for Haring’s work through exhibitions, publications and the licensing of his images. Haring enlisted his imagery during the last years of his life to speak about his own illness and generate activism and awareness about AIDS. During a brief but intense career that spanned the 1980s, Haring’s work was featured in over 100 solo and group exhibitions.

In 1986 alone, he was the subject of more than 40 newspaper and magazine articles. He was highly sought after to participate in special projects and collaborated with artists and performers such as Madonna, Grace Jones, Bill T. Jones, William Burroughs, Timothy Leary, Jenny Holzer and Andy Warhol. By expressing universal concepts of birth, death, love, sex and war, using a primacy of line and directness of message, Haring was able to attract a wide audience and assure the accessibility and staying power of his imagery, which has become a universally recognized visual language of the 20th century. Keith Haring died of AIDS related complications at the age of 31 on February 16, 1990.

A memorial service was held on May 4, 1990 at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City, with over 1,000 people in attendance. Since his death, he has been the subject of several international retrospectives. The work of Keith Haring can be seen today in the exhibitions and collections of major museums around the world.

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David Hockney

David Hockney was born in Bradford, England on 9 July 1937 to Laura and Kenneth Hockney and was educated first at Wellington Primary School, then Bradford Grammar School, Bradford College of Art and the Royal College of Art in London, where he met R. B. Kitaj. While he was there David Hockney said he felt at home, he took pride and success in his work here.

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While a student at the Royal College of Art, David Hockney was featured in the exhibition ‘Young Contemporaries’ – alongside Peter Blake – that announced the arrival of British Pop art. He was associated with the movement, but his early works also display expressionist elements, not dissimilar to certain works by Francis Bacon. Sometimes, as in We Two Boys Together Clinging (1961), named after a poem by Walt Whitman, these works make reference to his love for men. From 1963, David Hockney was represented by the art dealer John Kasmin.

In 1963, David Hockney visited New York, making contact with Andy Warhol. A subsequent visit to California, where he lived for many years, inspired David Hockney to make a series of paintings of swimming pools in Los Angeles, using the comparatively new acrylic medium and rendered in a highly realistic style using vibrant colours.

In 1967, his painting, Peter Getting Out Of Nick’s Pool, won the John Moores Painting Prize at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. He made prints, portraits of friends, and stage designs for the Royal Court Theatre, Glyndebourne, La Scala and the Metropolitan Opera in New York City.

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Roy Lichtenstein

Roy Lichtenstein (October 27, 1923 – September 29, 1997) was a prominent American pop artist. During the 1960s, his paintings were exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City and, along with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, James Rosenquist, and others he became a leading figure in the new art movement. His work defined the basic premise of pop art better than any other through parody.

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Favoring the old-fashioned comic strip as subject matter, Roy Lichtenstein produced hard-edged, precise compositions that documented while it parodied often in a tongue-in-cheek humorous manner. His work was heavily influenced by both popular advertising and the comic book style. He described Pop Art as, “not ‘American’ painting but actually industrial painting”.

In 1960, he started teaching at Rutgers University where he was heavily influenced by Allan Kaprow, who was also a teacher at the university. This environment helped reignite his interest in Proto-pop imagery. In 1961, Lichtenstein began his first pop paintings using cartoon images and techniques derived from the appearance of commercial printing. This phase would continue to 1965, and included the use of advertising imagery suggesting consumerism and homemaking. His first work to feature the large-scale use of hard-edged figures and Ben-Day dots was Look Mickey (1961, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.). This piece came from a challenge from one of his sons, who pointed to a Mickey Mouse comic book and said; “I bet you can’t paint as good as that, eh, Dad?” In the same year he produced six other works with recognizable characters from gum wrappers and cartoons.

In 1961, Leo Castelli started displaying Lichtenstein’s work at his gallery in New York. Lichtenstein had his first one-man show at the Castelli gallery in 1962; the entire collection was bought by influential collectors before the show even opened. A group of paintings produced between 1961-1962 focussed on solitary household objects such as sneakers, hot dogs, and golf balls. In September 1963, he took a leave of absence from his teaching position at Douglass College at Rutgers.

1923 Born: New York City (October 27)
1940 Studied at the Art Students League, New York
1946 B.F.A. Ohio State University
1949 M.F.A. Ohio State University
1995 National Medal of the Arts
1997 Dies: New York, NY (September 29)

 

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Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987) was an American artist associated with the definition of Pop Art. He was a painter, an avant-garde filmmaker, a commercial illustrator, music industry producer, writer and celebrity. Other artists of the Pop Era include: Lichtenstein, Blake, Ramos.

By the beginning of the 1960s, Andy Warhol was a very successful commercial illustrator. His detailed and elegant drawings for I. Miller shoes were particularly popular. These illustrations consisted mainly of “blotted ink” drawings (monoprints)—a technique which he applied in much of his early art. Although many artists of this period worked in commercial art, most did so discreetly. Andy Warhol was so successful, however, that his profile as an illustrator seemed to undermine his efforts to be taken seriously as an artist.

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In the early 1960s Andy Warhol tried to exhibit some of his drawings using these techniques in a gallery, only to be turned down. He began to rethink the relationship between his commercial work and the rest of his art. Instead of treating these things as opposites, he merged them, and began to take commercial and popular culture more explicitly as his topic. Pop Art was an experimental form that several artists were independently adopting; some of these pioneers, such as Roy Lichtenstein, would later become synonymous with the movement. Andy Warhol, who would become famous as the “Pope of Pop”, turned to this new style, where popular subjects could be part of the artist’s palette. His early paintings show images taken from cartoons and advertisements, hand-painted with paint drips. Those drips emulated the style of successful abstract expressionists (such as Robert Rauschenberg).

Eventually, Warhol pared his image vocabulary down to the icon itself—to brand names, celebrities, dollar signs—and removed all traces of the artist’s “hand” in the production of his paintings. To him, part of defining a niche was defining his subject matter. Cartoons were already being used by Lichtenstein, typography by Jasper Johns, and so on; Andy Warhol wanted a distinguishing subject. His friends suggested he should paint the things he loved the most. In his signature way of taking things literally, for his first major exhibition he painted his famous cans of Campbell’s Soup, which he’d had for lunch for most of his life. Warhol loved money, so he later painted money. He loved celebrities, so he painted them as well. From these beginnings he developed his later style and subjects. Instead of working on a signature subject matter, as he started out to do, he worked more and more on a signature style, slowly eliminating the hand-made from the artistic process. Andy Warhol frequently used silk-screening; his later drawings were traced from slide projections.

Warhol went from being a painter to being a designer of paintings. At the height of his fame as a painter, Andy Warhol had several assistants who produced his silk-screen multiples, following his directions to make different versions and variations. Warhol produced both comic and serious works; his subject could be a soup can or an electric chair. Andy Warhol used the same techniques—silkscreens, reproduced serially, and often painted with bright colors—whether he painted celebrities, everyday objects, or images of suicide, car crashes, and disasters (as part of a 1962-1963 series called “Death and Disaster”). The “Death and Disaster” paintings (such as “Red Car Crash”, “Purple Jumping Man”, “Orange Disaster”) transform personal tragedies into public spectacles, and signal the prominence of images of disaster in the media, showing how the mass reproduction of these images numbs the public. The unifying element in Andy Warhol’s work is his deadpan Keatonesque style—artistically and personally affectless. This was mirrored by Andy Warhol’s own demeanor, as he often played “dumb” to the media, and refused to explain his work.

The artist was famous for having said that all you need to know about him and his works is already there, “on the surface.” Before this blankness, the lack of signifiers of sincerity, the viewer is tempted to read beyond the surface to try and discover what the ‘real Andy’ thinks. Is Andy horrified by death or does he think it is funny? Are his soup can paintings a cynical joke about the cheapness of mass culture, or are they homages to the simple comforts of home? His refusal to speak to how his work ought to be read made it all the more interesting—he left its interpretation entirely up to his audience.

One might say that Andy Warhol’s work as a Pop Artist was always somewhat conceptual. His series of do it yourself paintings and Rorschach blots are intended as pop comments on art and what art could be. His cow wallpaper (literally, wallpaper with a cow motif) and his oxidation paintings (canvases prepared with copper paint that was then oxidized with urine) are also noteworthy in this context. Equally noteworthy is the way these works—and their means of production—mirrored the atmosphere at Andy’s New York “Factory.”

Biographer Bob Colacello provides some details on Andy’s “piss paintings”: Victor… was Andy’s ghost pisser on the Oxidations. He would come to the Factory to urinate on canvases that had already been primed with copper-based paint by Andy or Ronnie Cutrone, who was a second ghost pisser, much appreciated by Andy, who said that the vitamin B that Ronnie took made a prettier color when the acid in the urine turned the copper green. Did Andy ever use his own urine? My diary shows that when he first began the series, in December 1977, he did, and there were many others: boys who’d come to lunch and drink too much wine, and find it funny or even flattering to be asked to help Andy ‘paint.’ Andy always had a little extra bounce in his walk as he led them to his studio… – Holy Terror—Andy Warhol Close Up, New York, Harper/Collins, 1990, p. 343 One could say that these “piss paintings” could be seen as a parody of Abstract Expressionism and Jackson Pollock (who was famous for pouring paint all over his canvases, often directly from the can).

One could also find in them a reflection of some subsets of the gay underworld of New York of that era, including fascination with and sexual focus on urine and excretory matter in general. Demi-monde New York nightclubs of that period include “The Toilet,” a spot featuring public urination acts (to include being doused by others, or drinking their urine) and others of a similar nature, such as “The Anvil.” Andy visited these spots, although he was not recorded as a subject of undinistic practices, but rather, as so often, as an observer. In any case, he was wholly familiar with the undinistic, urologic, and other “watersports” practices of the day.

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Robert Indiana Love

1928 Born: New Castle, IN
1953 – 1954 B.F.A. at the School of Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL
1954 Attended the Edinburgh College of Art, Scotland on the George Brown Travelling Fellowship
1956 Moved to New York
1964 Appeared in the Andy Warhol film Eat
1970 Recieved Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts Degree from Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA
1973 Designed the immensely popular multi-colored “Love” on a United States postage stamp
1977 Awarded Honorary Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts by University of Indiana, Bloomington, IN
1981 Recieved Honorary Doctoral Degree from Colby College, Waterville, MA
2010 – MOCA – Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL
2009 Robert Indiana and the Star of Hope – Farnsworth Art Museum, Rockland, ME (solo)
Sculpture: Post-War to Present – Maxwell Davidson Gallery, New York City, NY
Von Picasso bis Warhol, Künstlerschmuck der Avantgarde – Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Cologne
2008 Pressing Issues, Des Moines Art center, Des Moines, IA
Pop and Op, Nassau County Museum of Art, Roslyn Harbor, NY
2007 Art Market Now, The Columns, Seoul, South Korea
2006 Life as a Legend – Marilyn Monroe, Boca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, FL
2005 Made in USA – ausgewählte Graphik, Galerie & Edition Bode GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany
Summer of Love Art of the Psychedelic Era, Tate Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Do it yourself – Positionen von den sechziger Jahren bis Heute, Hamburger Bahnhof, Museum für Gegenwart, Berlin, Germany
40 Jahre Galerie Thomas, Galerie Thomas, Munich, Germany
2004 – 2005 Robert Indiana 66: Paintings and Sculpture, Price Tower Arts Center’s, Bartlesville, OK
2003 Letters, Words and Numbers, L & M Gallery, New York, NY
1998 Retrospective, Musée D’Art Moderne Contemporain, Nice, France
1991 Prints Retrospective, Susan Sheehan Gallery, New York, NY
1990 Prints as Process, Baxter Gallery, Portland School of Art, MA
1986 Vinalhaven Press 1985-1986, Portland Museum of Art, MA
1982 Indiana’s Indianas: A 25 Year Retrospective of Paintings and Sculptures from the Collection of Robert Indiana, National Museum of Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washingtonm, DC
1978 Art about Art, Whitney Museum of Art, New York, NY
1977 – 1978 Museum retrospective travels to University Art Museum at University of Texas, Austin, TX; the Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, Virginia, VA; the Indianapoilis Museum of Art, Indiana, IN; the Neuberger Museum, State University of New York, Purchase, NY; the Art Center, South Bend, Indiana, IN
1976 Thirty Years of American Art, Brooklyn Museum of Art, curated by Gene Baro, Brooklyn, NY
1975 – 1976 Galerie Denise Rene, New York, NY (solo)
1975 American Art Since 1945, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
1972 The Modern Image, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA
Galerie Denise Rene, New York, NY (solo)
1969 – 1970 The Prints and Posters of Robert Indiana, New England tour originates at St. Mary’s College, Notre Dame, Indiana. Travels to Colby College of Art Museum, Waterville, ME; the Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, NH; the Hopkins Center, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH; the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME; and Brandeis University, Waltham, MA
1969 70 Years of American Art, Whitney Museum of Art, New York, NY
1968 First one-man museum exhibition travels to the Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia, PA; the Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum, San Antonia, TX and the Herron Museum of Art, Toledo, OH
Word and Image, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
1967 Ninth Sao Paulo Bienal, Brazil
1966 LOVE Exhibition at Stable Gallery, New York, NY
1966 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture, Whitney Museum of Art, New York, NY
Galerie Alfred Schmela, Dusseldorf, Germany
Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, Germany
1965 Word and Image, Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
1965 Annual Exhibition of American Paintings, Whitney Museum of Art, New York, NY
1964 Stable Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1963 Americans 1963, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
Exhibits with Richard Stankeiwicz at the Walker Art Center, Mineapolis, MI (The show travels to The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA)
New Realists, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, NY
1962 Stable Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1961 The Art of Assemblage, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
SELECTED PUBLIC COLLECTIONS:
Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
Stedelijk Museum, Schiedam, The Netherlands
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA
Detroit Institute of Art, MI
Allentown Museum of Art, Allentown, PA
Baltimore Museum of Art, MD
Brandeis Museum, Waltham, MA
Albright-Knox Gallery of Art, Buffalo, New York
Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld, Germany
Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, CA
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY
Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, CT
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA
2006 Wilmerding John, Pissarro Joachim, Robert Pincus-Witten and Peter Halley. Robert Indiana: The Artist and His Work 1955 – 2005. New York: Rizzoli, 2006.
2000 Ryan, Susan E. Robert Indiana: Figures of Speech. Conneticut: Yale University Press, 2000
Pissarro, Joachim, Depotte, Helene. Robert Indiana: Retrospective 1958-1998. Washington: University of Washington Press, 2000
1999 Indiana, Robert. Love and the American Dream: The Art of Robert Indiana. Portland: Portland Museum of Art, 1999
1992 Sheehan, Susan . Robert Indiana Prints: A Catalogue Raisonne 1951-1991. New York: Susan Sheehan Gallery, 1992
1990 Carl J Weinhardt. Robert Indiana. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990
1969 Indiana, Robert. Robert Indiana: Graphics. Indiana: Department of Art of Saint Mary’s College, 1969
1968 Indiana, Robert. Robert Indiana, Conneticut: Falcon Press, 1968

 

 


Takashi Murakami

Takashi Murakami (American/Japanese, b.1962) is a painter and sculptor famous for his integration of Fine Art, commercialism, Japanese aesthetics, and cultural criticism into his work.

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“The Modern Day Andy Warhol”

Originally based and working from a studio in Asaka City, Japan, Takashi Murakami quickly established a large scale studio of assistants, taking influence from the work habits of Andy Warhol.

Indeed, the Warholian similarities do not end there, for his work draws heavily from the fields of consumer culture, for so long an area deeply imbued in Warhol’s art.

Takashi Murakami paints in the self titled style of “Superflat”, a method whereby everything within the image is portrayed in two dimensions only, and one that he used extensively during his commissioned work as a designer in 2003 for Louis Vuitton.

The “Superflat” technique finds its origins in far less contemporary surroundings than couture fashion, since it draws upon traditional Japanese techniques pioneered by the panel and screen painters of the sixteenth century.

Biography

Born in 1962 in Japan, Murakami received his BFA, MFA, and PhD from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, where he studied Nihonga  (traditional Japanese painting).

He first gained recognition as a sculptor during the early 1990s, exploring otaku (the Japanese term for an obsession with anime and cartoons) and the contradictions between contemporary Japanese society and American culture in his work.

In 1996, he created the Hiropon Factory in Japan, which later developed into Kaikai Kiki Co. Ltd., a large art making and artist management corporation. Murakami is also a curator and a critical observer of Japanese art.

In 2000, he founded the “Superflat” movement, a post modern style drawing inspiration from Japanese manga (comics created in Japan), graphic design, and traditional Japanese prints and screen paintings. 

Throughout his career, Murakami has increasingly blurred the boundaries between fine art and popular culture by branding his artwork and turning it into merchandise, particularly with the celebrated character Mr. Dob. His embrace of the commercial side of art reached a high point in 2003, when the artist began collaborating with Marc Jacobs in the redesign of the Louis Vuitton logo and handbags.

Murakami currently lives and works in Tokyo and New York.

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